Researchers from the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences have achieved a significant breakthrough in astaxanthin production, a potent keto carotenoid with powerful antioxidant properties. The study, published in Biosource Technology, unveils the effectiveness of arginine supplements in enhancing the growth and production of astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis, a green algae known for its natural production of this compound. In the research, arginine was identified as the most efficient and economical additive among various substances tested to promote algal growth and astaxanthin accumulation. Under high light conditions during the red stage of cultivation, microalgae often face stress, reducing overall growth and astaxanthin production. The introduction of arginine mitigated this issue by activating specific pathways in the algae, controlling carotenoid and lipid-related genes, and improving carbon utilization. The application of arginine demonstrated a synergistic effect on achieving biomass, astaxanthin, and lipids simultaneously, using cost-effective chemicals. Transcriptome analysis revealed the up-regulation of genes related to carbon fixing, lipid biosynthesis, and arginine metabolism. By enhancing the antioxidant defense mechanism and reducing oxidative stress, arginine indirectly supports astaxanthin production. This breakthrough provides an economic, faster, and healthier approach to astaxanthin farming in Haematococcus pluvialis, contributing to the growing trend of natural, sustainable ingredients in various products, including sports nutrition and healthy aging.